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O'Keeffe Clan

Gathering and Rally

9, 10 and 11 Sept 2016

guided tours, lectures

historical and genealogical exhibitions

cultural and musical events,

buffet banquet Saturday evening
Dromtariffe Parish History

Brief History of the Diocese of Kerry
Dromtariffe Parish is currently one of 54 parishes in the Diocese of Kerry. (Catholic Communications).  The diocesan system was first drawn up at the Synod of Rath Breasail in the year 1111. (O'Shea, 2005)  Rath Bhrasail meaning Brasill's Fort is presently named Fortgrady.  Lord Guillamore (Guillamore, surname – O'Grady) was the landlord of this townland.  (Bowman, Michael J)  Rathbreasail is about two miles west of Banteer, in the parish of Dromtariffe on the farm of Mrs. Pat Singleton.  The important church Synod, which took place in the year 1111 at a place called Fiadh Mhic Aengussa or Raith Breasail which is known to historians as the Synod of Rathbreasail and research shows that Rathbreasail was the old name for the townland of Fortgrady which can be traced as far back as 1582.  (Seanchas Duhallow 1986)

Rathbreasail is very close to the borders of three of the dioceses established at that Synod of 1111 – Cork, Emly and Raith Maige Deiscirt, which later became the diocese of Ardfert. (Seanchas Duhallow 1986).  However, another source reads Rath Muige Deiscirt (Rathass) was named as the diocesan See for the Kerry region and at the Synod of Kells in 1152 Ardfert was designated the Episcopal See of the diocese.  Sometimes known as Ardfert and Aghadoe – mistakenly, since there never was a diocese of Aghadoe.  The name was not officially changed to Kerry until 1952, though it was common in popular usage long before then. (O'Shea, 2005)

Until 1111 the church was organised on the basis of great federations of Monasteries governed by Abbots.  While there were Bishops, their roll was restricted, and they played little or no part in the government of the church.  Dioceses were established and Bishops appointed and the authority within the church was transferred to the bishops.  This Synod was presided over by the High King of Ireland, Muircheartach O'Brien. (Seanchas Duhallow 1986)

 

Map 2, redrawn map of dioceses and parishes

 

The map is the Diocese of Kerry (Ardfert c. 1215-1585).  As can be seen, it is only slightly different from the current map of the diocese.  Tralee town is now split into two parishes St John's and Our Lady and St Brendan's (since 1970)

A division of Ballybunion in 1960 formed Ballydonoghue.

Some of the names of the parish have changed in recent years for example:
Moyvane (Newtownsandes)
Ballinskelligs (Prior)
Beaufort (Tuogh)
Glengarriff (Bonane)
Waterville (Dromod)

Map4,



Dromtariffe Parish – how it was in the past
The parish of Dromtariffe is the most easterly point of the Diocese of Kerry. Dromtariffe originally was a small townland just two families dwelling in it.  The O'Flynn Family, which held 2 households and the O'Callaghan Family 1 household.  It was small but significant as it gives its name to the Parish of Dromtariffe.  The oldest parish in Duhallow to be named as it is today even going back 3 to 5 hundred years ago.  (Moynihan, T 2006)

Dromtariffe became the centre of the parish because it had been the centre of the old Pagan settlement long before the coming of Christianity to our shores in 432 AD with the arrival of Saint Patrick.  Pagan ceremonies like drinking water from wells and sacrificing an animal to the Pagan god or gods was very important to the people at that time.  So possibly how Dromtariffe (Drom Tarbh) got its name was the Irish word for a bull is tarbh and the English meaning of drom is a ridge of land.  Most of the land around Dromtariffe is in ridges hence a lot of the surrounding townlands begin with Drom i.e. Dromskehy, Dromahoe, Dromalour and Drominagh just to name a few and the connection with the bull is that the sacrifice of a bull was made in that ridge possibly near the well to their Pagan god.  The well in Dromtariffe is associated with a Saintly lady who lived at the well and she was called Inghin Bhui or Inin Bui and perhaps the Pagan god's name was Bui and she was his daughter or a descendant of his.  Again there are several town lands with “bui” in their names and they may not be associated with the colour yellow, which is the English meaning of bui, they may be called after some important family named Bui at that time. e.g. Boherbui, Cuan Bui which was the old Irish name for Bantry Bay, Dun Bui which gave its name to Dunboy Castle, Dun Maon Bhui which is Dunmanway again just to name a few.  Possibly the sacrifice of the bull calf was on the 6th May to this Pagan god Bui and that is why we have a “Well Day” on this date.  Also there may have been a family to look after a special bull calf for sacrifice on this day.  There is a family name Laoaire – lao meaning calf and aire meaning minder – the minder of the calf.  In modern times they are called O' Leary.  There is still part of that O'Leary family called Laoaire Bui.  Again the word Bui is appearing so it is possible that he was the Pagan god in those times.  This brings us to why the Medieval church and graveyard is where it is because that area was a place of worship in Pagan times and continued to be a Christian place of worship. (Moynihan, T 2006)
Inghin Bui was possibly a druidess or goddess and the word Bui or Baoi did not necessarily mean yellow.  It was a name that was in West Cork as Cuan Bui was the old Irish name for Bantry Bay and Dun Bui which gave its name to Dunboy Castle in Castletownbere. (McSweeney, D 2006)

Research shows that the rural deanery in the taxation of Ardfert diocese in 1291 to 1300 Dromtariffe was mentioned as having a church called ‘Eccia de Drumdarill' “The Eccia de Drumdarill is probably the church of Droumtariffe, also in the county Cork, although belonging to the Ardfert diocese. (Hickson, M)

Windele, writing in 1840 on Dromtariffe ruined church, states; - It stands on an eminence, and is surrounded by a well occupied cemetery, wherein, according to the tombstones many an O'Keeffe lies.  The church is a long oblong.  The walls are built of rubble stone.  The door is destroyed and two narrow lancet windows in the S. wall near the altar end alone remain.  The eastern gable, with its window, has fallen.  Light must have been very sparingly admitted to this church.  There was no window in the N. wall.  The stone forming the jambs of the window in the Researche, red or yellow sandstone, so sought after in the old Romanesque Churches.  No architectural or sculptured features remain to show whether this was ever an ornamental structure.  I rather think it was not (Windele MSS 12,I.,II., p. 695)(Grovewhite 1969)

This Church was used for religious Ceremonies, Mass etc. until July 1651.  On that date it was burned by Cromwellian Soldiers under an Officer called Maxwell.  The roof being thatched burned easily and 24 people lost their lives in the conflagration.  The burning followed the battle of Knockbrack which was fought in that same month and year.  Knockbrack is the townland directly across the Blackwater from the townland of Dromtariffe and the battle was an important one in the Cromwellian War in Ireland which lasted from 1641 to 1652.  Cromwell himself came to Ireland in August 1649 and having captured the towns of Drogheda, Wexford and Clonmel left his son-in-law Henry Ireton to finish the war for him.  Ireton laid siege to Limerick in 1651 and a Catholic leader called Lord Muskerry gathered an Army in Kerry and West Cork to march to the relief of the City.  However, Muskerry's Army was defeated at Knockbrack in July 1651 after a fierce battle. (O Muineachain, T 1985)

The Battle of Knockbrack or Knocknaclashy was fought south west of Banteer in 1651 somewhere after a lot of manoeuvring between Drishane and Mallow, and right up to Liscarroll and down again.

The Battle of Knockbrack was really the last battle of the Civil War in Ireland, of the wars of the Confederation of Kilkenny.  Far fewer numbers were involved in the Battle of Knockbrack than in the Battle of Knocknanoss, nevertheless, it was a fiercer battle, and the consequences were catastrophic for what remained of Gaelic Ireland.

The last major battle was the Battle of Knockbrack.  By the summer of 1651, the Cromwellians had captured all fortified towns, except Limerick.  Limerick was under siege from an army that had marched down through Connacht as well as from an army on the Southern side.  Lord Muskerry – the chief of the McCarthys – who had opposed Rinuccini (ambassador of the Papal Nunico) throughout – raised an army in Kerry and was marching it up to relieve Limerick when he was met by a Parliamentary force led by Lord Broghill (Roger Boyle).

Broghill interposed his force between McCarthy's force and Limerick.  After much manoeuvring, the Battle was fought at Knockbrack.  The numbers involved were much smaller than at Knocknanoss.  But the Battle was much fiercer, and more closely contested.

Muskerry had 1,000 Horse and 2,000 Infantry.  Broghill had 400 Horse and 600 Infantry.  But Broghill's troops were battle-hardened, and had a strong conviction that they could not be defeated as they were agents of the will of God.  So they won.

The casualties were 600 in Muskerry's Army and 130 in Broghill's. (Clifford, B/Aubane Historical Society 1990)

That battle was a battle between the Cromwellian forces and the Confederate forces under Lord Donagh McCarthy – Lord Muskerry.  His forces would have comprised of his own mercenaries and various clans nearby – McAuliffes, O'Callaghans and the O'Keeffes. 

At the time the Siege of Limerick was in progress and Lord Muskerry assembled a force to go to lift the Siege of Limerick.  Cromwell at the time was in Clonmel and he sent his general Ireton from Macroom to intercept Muskerry's forces.  They met in Knockbrack in the middle of the summer of 1651 and the battle took place there. The important point of this battle was that the Irish were defeated, a battle that probably should never have been defeated because they had superior forces.  This led to the attack on Dromagh Castle and the burning of Dromagh church.  If the Irish forces won at Knockbrack the Siege of Limerick would have had different consequences.  Knockbrack was no doubt a very important battle. (O'Keeffe D.J. 2006)

A battle fought on July 26, 1651, between the English under Lord Broghill, and the Irish under Lord Muskerry.  The following extract is from Cusack's History of Cork, P.366: “A terribly bloody slaughter was effected near Dromagh, where the Irish had fought with surpassing bravery.  The inhuman command was given to kill all, and the order was executed with the usual barbarity.  The engagement took place at Knocknaclashy, about half a mile from Banteer.
It was during the pursuit of the Irish after this battle, that Broghill's soldiers burned the church at Dromtarriffe. (Bowman, Michael J)

The day after the battle, one of Brohill's officers known as “Butcher Maxwell” burnt the old church Dromtariffe.  Within, we are told, 400 persons perished. (Tarrant, C 2006)

After the church was burnt down in July 1651 there was no church in Dromtariffe or no place to build a Catholic church or no permission to do so from the powers that be at the time.  So at one stage there used be mass at Daly's mountain field.  This seemed to be a very suitable place to say mass at those times as it was down in a hollow and people would not be seen.  (Moynihan, T 2006)

In 1559 the Irish Parliament passed both the Act of Supremacy and the Act of Uniformity.  The Act of Uniformity prohibited the Mass and subsequently ordered all priests to leave Dublin and prohibited the use of images, candles and beads.  By 1641 there was no mercy or tolerances shown under Cromwell's rule so all clergymen were ordered to leave Ireland or put to death if they refused.  Some were sent to the Aran Islands and more to Barbados.  Anyone else who sheltered them was liable to the death penalty.  The Catholic churches were soon in ruins and a thousand priests were driven into exile.  After Rickard O'Connell died in 1653 there was only one Bishop in all of Ireland – the Bishop of Kilmore, Eugene McSweeney. It took until 1771 before Catholics were beginning to be recognised again and be accepted. (Catholic Encyclopedia: Penal Laws)

According to tradition, people went to Mass in Coolclogh after the burning of Dromtarriff.  One wall of this chapel is still standing and is now a fence. Open-air Mass was said during penal times in Murphy's land in Garraveasoge. (McCarthy, D 1991)

Churches in Dromtariffe today:
Dromagh

Fr. John Barry rebuilt Dromagh Church in 1833.  It was originally built as a plain barn-like structure.  Rev. John Barry was obviously caught up in the current passion for the Gothic and engaged a local sculptor, Charles O'Connell, to work on it.  A spire and pinnacles were added, and the west front was lavishly decorated even to the extent of a stone clock-face.  Heads of St. Peter and St. Paul, the papal arms of Pope Gregory XVI and a Memento Mori (Remember Death) panel with skull and crossbones were included, together with the Leader crest and an inscription recording its bearer's generosity. Little seems to be known about O'Connell but his work turns up in churches (Dernagree and Kanturk) and in monuments in graveyards.  However, the lavish decoration of Coolclogh and Dernagree are unusual in early 19th century Roman Catholic churches.  (Pochin, Mould, D 1991)

According to Lewis, (1837) the chapel, near Dromagh is a spacious and handsome structure, originally built on a site presented by the late Mr. Leader, who also contributed £150 towards the building; it has been recently rebuilt, in Gothic style, under the superintendence of the Rev. J. Barry, P.P., and has now a handsome front of hewn limestone, with a spire rising 80 feet from the ground.

The present church was built in 1833, it was dedicated to St. John Lateran because his feast fell on that date. (Muimhneacháin, T 1993)

Derrinagree
Roman Catholic Church in Dernagree.  Rectangular church (long axis NE-SW).  Walls rendered with raised quoins.  Lit by pointed windows with cut limestone surrounds.  Ornate SW entrance gable.  Central breakfront of ashlar limestone topped with bellcote; central ogee-headed door ope with large ogee headed window overhead, niches on either side of door and window.  Inscribed stone on wall with date ‘1838' Described by Lewis (1837 Vol 1 509) as recently rebuilt.  Similar design to Dromagh.  Stone sculptures attributed to Charles O'Connell (Power, D)

Mass was first said in Doire na Graoi chapel in the year 1829.  Still the building was not completed until the year 1886.  (NFC 776:383-386 UCC Library)
A thatched chapel was built there (Derrinagree) after the old chapel had been burned down in Skeagh.  That remained there for a very long time and then the present chapel was begun in 1820 by Fr. Fitzmaurice.  It was completed in 1829.  (NFC 790:30-35 UCC Library) ** Note these dates are different

Fr. Edmund Fitzmaurice, (1836-1840) a native of Tarbert and grand uncle of Bishop Fitzmaurice of Wilmington.  He built Derrinagree Church in the year 1838.  Plaque on wall says; Pray for Rev. Edmund Fitzmaurice P.P. Founder of this Church.  He was first buried in Dromtariffe Church but the Derrinagree people came at night and disinterred the body and buried him in Derrinagree Church.  Bishop Fitzmaurice told me this story.  I made inquiries and it is quite true (aged 40). (Tangney, N.J 1965)

Holy Wells:
Drominagh South
Holy Well in M. Cunningham's.  This is about 300 yards west of the church site in Drominagh North.  This well is called Toberanolivet – meaning doubtful.
Tobar Cuirc – Quirke's Well- name of a well in M. O'Flynn's in the townland of Dromtariffe.
(Bowman, Michael J)

Grovewhite writes - near the ruined church of Drumtarriff is a Holy Well.  Numbers of people assemble here on the 6th May to “pay rounds.”
This Holy Well was visited on 25th Sept., 1910, and found in the middle of a field under a few trees, a hole in the ground about three feet deep. 
The Rev'd. Canon J.P. Lynch contributes: - Canon O'Hanlon (“Lives of the Irish Saints, vol v., p.103, at 4th May) says: -“In the county of Cork, barony of Duhallow, there is a holy well called Droumharif (Dromtariff).  This well is famed for curing all sorts of diseases in men, and especially eyes.  It is attended on the 4th of May in each year.  A most remarkable occurrence is said to have taken place, now over 20 years ago the man who owned the land in which the holy well is situated thought to stop it by draining, as the people used to damage his place when coming from all directions to visit the well.  All the men he had employed endeavouring to stop its course refused working at it.  He even advanced their wages, but this did not induce the greater number of them to continue their labour.  However, some undertook the draining and the first day they worked, every workman got sore eyes.  After this, some continued for a few days until they got stone blind.  Then the gentleman who owned the land saw his mistake and he got men to repair the damage he had done to the well.  He got a wall built around it, and from that date he kept a man in charge of it.  Edward N. Corridon of the Royal Irish Constabulary Barrack, Phoenix Park, Dublin communicating the foregoing particulars in a letter addressed to the writer, and dated April 9th 1873.

Canon O'Hanlon (“Lives of Irish Saints” vol. v.p.112) says: - “St. Ingen, Dromtariff old Church, County of Cork.  In the diocese of Kerry there is an old church at Dromtariff, in the parish so-called, and County of Cork where a female saint, called Inneen, was venerated on the 6th of May.  According to popular tradition, she was the sister of St. Lateerin, who is likewise popularly known at Cullin (Cullen) in that part of the country and to an older sister who lived at Kilmeen.  The remains of an ancient paved way may be traced between the places.  It is stated, according to a local tradition, that the Angels of Heaven made a road one night from Kilmeen through Dromtariff and to Cullin, so that the three sisters might the more conveniently visit each other once every week.  For a further account the reader is referred to Edward Walsh's “Popular Legends of the South.”  No.iii., St. Lateerin.  “Dublin Penny Journal” vol. i., No. 45. p.360. Much obscurity hangs over their history, as their celebrity appears to be merely local, although the people in their parts of the country have a great veneration for those sisters.”(Grovewhite 1969)

In the centre of this area where all these celebrations take place, there are the three local Saints also having their feasts on the ancient Celtic Ceremonial days and these are our primary concern.  Lasair of Cill Lasrach at Imbolc (beginning of Spring); An Inion Bhui of Drom Tairbh at Bealtaine (beginning of Summer); Laitiaran of Cullen at Lunasa (beginning of Autumn).  Another curious facet of this arrangement is that these occupy different sites a few miles apart.  Pilgrimages are still made to two of these sites on the patronal day and tradition has it that roads connected the sites with each other.

It is practically certain that there was once a pilgrimage to Cill Lasrach at Imbolc.  We still have the Bealtaine pilgrimage to Drom Tairbh and the Lunasa pilgrimage to Cuilinn Ui Chaomh.  There may well have been a death celebration at Samhain at some other site – perhaps at Coisceim na Cailli or perhaps it was done privately in the homes, for we still even at the present day in some areas have remnants of the celebration of Samhain e.g. bonfires blazing on this night.

There is an Inghen Bhaoith as Patron of the ancient parish of Kilnaboy (Cill Inghine Baoith) near Corofin, Co. Clare.  Baoith appears to have been a king in the area of Corcomroe, Co. Clare.  Two feast days are associated with Inion Bhui in the Martyrology of Tallaght; 2nd January and 29th March, but it was on December 29th that her Holy Well was visited in Kilnaboy.  In two poems in the Brussels Ms, Inion Bhui and St. Senan of Inis Chathaigh carry on a long acrimonious discussion.  This Co. Clare Saint may well be the Inion Bhui of Drom Tairbh.  This would make her “the daughter of Baoith” not “the yellow girl”. ( Dunne, S 1991)

The Leaders (landlords) drained the well at Dromtariffe on one occasion.  They drained from the Blackwater up to the well, with the intention of putting an end to the custom of visiting the well.  At that time people went to the well on different occasions during the year: there was no special day of pilgrimage.  The Leaders then tilled the land and sowed corn in the area of the well and in fact over the well itself, which they had covered.  On the morning of the sixth of May the spring burst up through the ground.  It made a lake of four or five feet in depth and a few feet in diameter, where the well had been.  The story went round and the people made enquiries to find out whether the well had not reappeared previous to the date mentioned. Nobody had seen it before the sixth of May however.  Water to the depth of about one and a half feet filled the bottom of the well and no water overflowed into the field.  Therefore it did not interfere with Leader in any way.

The result of it all was that the Leaders did not again interfere with the well or with anybody who has occasion to visit it. (NFC 776:441-442 – UCC Library)

Famine Times in Dromtariffe
The Great Famine was the greatest calamity to befall the Celtic race in Ireland since the Celts under their warrior queen Scotia and her sons, Ir and Eremóin first set foot in our land some three hundred years before the birth of Christ.

In the few years from 1845 to 1851 the population of Ireland dropped from 8.5 million to 6 million.  The vast majority of those two million and a half, who either died of starvation or fever due to the failure of the potato crop, or emigrated in unseaworthy “coffin ships”, were of the old Gaelic Irish speaking stock.  The stream of emigration which commenced in the famine years flowed irresistibly on for over one hundred years until the population of the whole island had dropped to four million.  It was not until very recent years that the population of Ireland has once more begun to increase.

The population of Ballymaquirke dropped from 87 in 1842 to 63 in 1851

Dromagh dropped from 267 to 171
Dromalour from 175 to 112
Dromskehy from 210 to 109
Dromtariffe from 33 to 6
Ducleagh from 193 to 110
Coolclough from 536 to 375
Lisnacon from 227 to 155
Rossglass from 84 to 72

The great concentration of population in such townlands as Dysert and Coolclough would suggest that these townlands were large villages prior to the famine.  One road in the Coolclough area which was once known as “raschal street”; still shows traces of the many habitations which once lined it on both sides.

In the townland of Garravasoge, roughly one mile from Dromagh, on the right hand side of the road as you go towards Kanturk stands a cross.  This monument marks the spot where scores of people were buried in a common grave without sheet or shroud or coffin in 1847.

Soup was distributed beside the Catholic Church at Dromagh which had been built ten years before the famine; soup was also distributed at the “gully” which is midway between Dromagh Post Office and the “Sandpit House”.  The little slated house in which the soup was cooked still stood there down to living memory.  There was also a soup house at Gurrane on the Millstreet road near the entrance to a house that was once the presbytery for the parish of Dromtariffe.  There was a very large population in Derrinagree in 1841.  Some ninety lived at the place known as the “Mall”.  Four years after the famine the census for 1851 gives the population of Derrinagree as “Nil”. (O' Muimhneacháin, T 1980-1981)

Parish Priests and Curates of Dromtariffe
The following is a list of 21 parish priests in Dromtariffe from 1471 to presently 2008.
Dermot O'Sullivan        1471
Florence O'Sullivan      1499
Donough Sullivan         1704+1714
Daniel O'Leary    1774-1777
Patrick Roche               1793-1806/8
Florence Sullivan          1817
Patrick Quinlan    1819-1832
John Barry           1832-1836
Edmund Fitzmaurice    1836-1840
John Tuomey               1840-1883
Corneilous O'Sullivan   1884-1901
John Casey                  1902-1907
Patrick White                1907-1927
Patrick Brosnan  1927-1932
Charles Brennan 1932-1937
James Prendeville       1937-1954
Nicholas Tangney        1954-1972
Denis Mangan              1972-1984
David Walsh                 1984-1991
Denis Quirke                 1991-1998
Sean Hanafin                1998-presently

Note:
James Tuohill was in Fort Grady in the parish of Dromtariffe from 1825-1828 “presumably temporarily” (Hanley)(de Brun, P 1986)
‘Father James Sheehan Friar from Buttevant', sometimes PP Dromtariff, according to list of 1886 (Diocesan Archives, Killarney: Coffey file 28) (de Brun, P 1986)

The following is a list of 44 curates in Dromtariffe from 1832 – 1998
Patrick Quinlan    1832-1834
James O' Halloran        1834-1838
John O'Donoghue        1838-1842
Denis O'Sullivan 1842-1842 Mar – Oct
Florence McCarthy       1842-1847
John Scollard               1847-1849
Daniel Healy                 1849-1852
Andrew Higgins  1852-1855
Thomas Cavanagh       1855-1857
Cornelius Enright          1857-1860
Robert Scanlon   1860-1861
Jeremiah Moynihan      1861-1862
Daniel Healy                 1862-1865
Thomas Nolan              1865-1866
Peter Barret                  1866-1870
Thomas Quilter   1870-1884
Patrick Browne    1884-1891
James Scanlon            1891-1893
Patrick Barton               1893-1895
Patrick O'Donnell         1895-1897
Maurice Fitzgerald        1897-1902
Denis O'Brien               1902-1904
James J O'Sullivan      1904-1905
James Nolan                1905-1907
William Aherne   1907-1914
Patrick Keane               1914-1924
Michael O'Donoghue   1924-1928
Jeremiah McGrath        1928-1929
Hugh Keane                  1929-1933
Edward O'Riordan        1933-1936
Con Moriarty                 1936-1937
Jeremiah O'Connell     1937-1946
Andrew Molyneaux       1946-1950
William O'Brien   1950-1953
David Walsh                 1953-1960
James Galvin                1960-1968
Donal McSweeney       1968-1969
John Corridan               1969-1972
Lawrence Kelly             1972-1984
Eamon Prendiville        1984-1986
Michael Leamy             1986-1988
Tom Randles                1988-1991
Gerard O'Connell         1991-1996
Donal O'Neill                 1996-1998
Dromagh Church 1833-2008   175 years
Derrinagree Church 1838-2008 170 years

Bibliography
O'Shea, K, 2005 The Diocese of Kerry formerly Ardfert, Working in the Fields of God
Bowman, Michael J. Place Names and Antiquities of the Barony of Duhallow (1931-1934)
Seanchas Duhallow (1986) Synod of Rathbreasail
Seanchas Duthalla 1991, Donogh McCarthy.
Moynihan, Tim, interview February 2006
McSweeney, Donal, Ballyvourney, interview March 2006
O' Muimhneacháin, Tadgh Seanchas Duthalla Vol. ix 1993
O' Muimhneacháin, Tadgh, Seanchas Duthalla, 1980-1981, pgs 32-33 The Great Famine in the Dromagh Area of the Parish of Dromtariffe
O Muineachain, Tadhg Dromtariffe A History, 1985
Dunne, Fr. Sean, Seanchas Duthalla, 1991 pgs 48,49,50
Hickson, Mary, A., Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland (1891 AD) Vol 21
Clifford, Brendan/Aubane Historical Society, 1990 The Battles of Knocknanoss and Knockbrack 
O'Keeffe, Dan Joe, interview May 2006
Tarrant, Con, interview February 2006                                              
Pochin Mould, Daphne, Discovering Cork (1991)
Lewis' Cork Topographical Dictionary
Grovewhite (1969)
Power, Denis Archaeological Inventory vol 4 part 2  
NFC 776:383-386 (1941) UCC Library, Special collection Pouladuff in Cork with reference from Irish Folklore, UCD
NFC 776:441-442 (1941) UCC Library, Special collection Pouladuff in Cork with reference from Irish Folklore, UCD
NFC 790:30-35 (1941) UCC Library, Special collection Pouladuff in Cork with reference from Irish Folklore, UCD
Tangney, Fr. Nicholas J. 19th Aug 1965, Documents given by Margaret de Brun, Kerry Diocesan Centre, Killarney.
Diocesan Archives, Killarney: Coffey file 28 Some Lists of Kerry Priests 1750-1835 Padraig de Brun, Reprinted from the Journal of the Kerry Archaeological and Historical Society no. 18 (1985[1986])  
Webliography     
www.catholiccommunications.ie/Dioceses/kerry  (Nov 2006)
www.rootsweb.com/~irlker/dioceses.gif
www.dioceseofkerry.ie parish index
www.newadvent.org/cathen Catholic Encyclopedia: Penal Laws 

THE SLAUGHTER OF DROMTARIFFE
Donna M. Shine

We stopped outside the graveyard gate             
Preparing to browse around;
To see the ancient ruins
Of a church on hallowed ground.

As legend goes, in Cromwell's day,
The Irish took a stance;
One thousand marched to Limerick
To prevent Ireton's advance

The Pikemen hid in Knockbrack wood,
There sheltered from attack;
In greatest hopes that victory
Would send the English back

Lord Broghill's men did intercept,
Forcing pikemen from the hill,
Then slaughtered man and horse alike,
Just killing at free will.

Then ‘cross Blackwater Broghill rode
Towards some who got a way;
They ran for sanctuary to Dromtariffe church
And there knelt down to pray.

Some fugitives and local folk
Were in the church as well;
When Maxwell set the church ablaze,
It burned like fires from hell.

The people shelt'ring there all died
In Sixteen Fifty-one,
Slain by ‘Butcher' Maxwell,
Survivors there were none.

‘Tis said that local farmers
When they plough their grain,
Still find so many horseshoes
Where Irishmen were slain.

The stone walls of the church still stand
The green ivy above,
Caressing those who died within,
God rest their souls in love.

Within those walls grave-markers stand
To name the families there;
And beg each passing stranger,
“Please stop and say a prayer'.

‘Remember those of us who died,
But fought so hard that day,
To save our rights, to hold our land;
Now that we've gone away'.

And as I leave that hallowed clay,
Most bless'd in all the earth,
Right surely as I walk away,
‘Tis etched upon my heart.